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power asymmetry theory

Decis. The existence of different perspectives is not explicitly acknowledged in BVT, which instead largely focuses on situations where there is agreement over whether something is funny or not. Impact Factor 2.067 | CiteScore 3.2More on impact ›, Towards a Cultural Specialty on Humor Perception and Usage doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.03.002, Festinger, L. (1962). LK and EN have contributed in all parts of the research process, including developing the conceptual framework, writing and revising the manuscript. In the current paper, we specifically focus on the social component of psychological distance (cf. The social setting in which the something is observed, heard, or experienced is not taken into consideration. “Knowing athletic asymmetry helps us put athletes in enviornments to utilize asymmetry in the context of proper timing. The important point is that power differences would always increase the social distance as perceived by the high-power individual even more. (2018) also addressed possible implications for the jokes one might choose to tell. doi: 10.1037/pspi0000041, Weiner, B. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. We will now place these factors in the broader context, by highlighting three ways in which culture may influence the sweet spot of humor. Leader distance: a review and a proposed theory. Psychol. Harmony and distress: humor, culture, and psychological well-being in south Korean organizations. Examples could range from being “attacked” by a friend trying to tickle you, to violating a linguistic norm. In contrast, our conceptualization of power goes beyond temporary states, feelings or experiences of power. One outer area being unequivocal good, in humor constituting the benign but non-funny. With the behavioral step already taken, the low-power individual is left only with the opportunity to change the values in order to resolve the cognitive dissonance (Festinger, 1962). 18, 207–216. Malign violations are accepted in spite of opposing views. Benign violations reside between two outer areas which the majority can agree on. considerable asymmetry of power; control of the flows is consolidated by the hydro-hegemon; and competition over water is stifled (Zeitoun, 2006a). Plester, 2016). This might not pose a problem in cases where the power distribution is symmetrical. This is consistent with experimental findings showing that high social class predicts increased unethical behavior (Piff et al., 2012): the unethical behaviors in the experiments included ignoring shared norms, even rules, with high-social class individuals allowing themselves to break traffic rules and steal candy from children. Psychol. Here, it is proposed that the concepts of asymmetry and symmetry in power and dominance are critical if we are ever to resolve the puzzle of altruism and cooperation towards non-kin. (Ahmedabad: Navajivan). The more psychologically distant a violation is, the more likely it therefore is to be perceived as benign. Geddes, D., and Callister, R. R. (2007). doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2009.00414.x, Stephan, E., Liberman, N., and Trope, Y. RESEARCH ARTICLE 10.1002/2014WR016257 Power asymmetry in conflict resolution with application to a water pollution dispute in China Jing Yu1,2,3, D. Marc Kilgour4,5, Keith W. Hipel5,6, and Min Zhao7 1School of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China, 2Research Center for International Economy and Trade, Nanjing University of Science and … This is because the sweet spot for humor may differ between people. It can inhibit reciprocal mechanisms in the sense that symmetric power makes it easier for a cheat to appropriate common resources while incurring fewer penalties. Soc. 117, 440–463. doi: 10.1177/0022022115606802, Antonakis, J., and Atwater, L. (2002). Violation of social expectations may also be funny. The joke-teller’s perception of this may be likely to influence what s/he chooses to joke about. For example, they argue that high power is associated with a reduced feeling of being similar to the other person. 31, 584–599. Whether this violation is seen as benign, and whether the joke is perceived as funny, might depend on whether the joke-perceiver knows or thinks that the joke-teller has had a close personal relationship with someone who is blind. When we address the psychological distance between a person and a joke, social distance refers to the felt distance between the focal person and the individual, group, cultural practice, norms, or roles that the joke is concerned with. We have argued that there may exist a systematic tendency explaining certain cases of mismatch between parties, with a potential for transgressions. 24, 1114–1128. Daily transactional and transformational leadership and daily employee engagement. A., and Ford, T. E. (2013). However, discussions on OCB include reflections on the facts that (1) the expected behavior should not be left undone and (2) everyone cannot exclusively perform out of the ordinary OCB. doi: 10.1177/0956797610376073, McGraw, A. P., Warren, C., Williams, L. E., and Leonard, B. Yet other models give a lot of attention to the good or the bad, but less to the border area. Rev. If the phenomena include a sweet spot as well as power differences, the BVT with our addendums may supplement the understanding of border areas in other models. Rev. Copyright © 2019 Kant and Norman. If the high-power joke-teller is also less “empathically accurate” (cf. Destructive leadership behaviour: a definition and conceptual model. Typi… Plester, B. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). “From a distance there is harmony” (Julie Gold). Even though all four forms of distance are mentioned in the BVT literature, the main focus seems to be on temporal and geographical distance (e.g., McGraw et al., 2012, 2014). However, here power was conceptualized as a temporary psychological state. It is worth noting that the mediating mechanism was a baseline-difference in mind-set between high- and low-class individuals. Even though social distance, power, and culture are discussed separately in subsequent sections, it is important to keep their interrelatedness in mind. According to the BVT, psychological distance reduces the tendency for people to perceive aversive stimuli or events as threatening (McGraw et al., 2014). High social distance is notably also associated with group-level outcomes (Antonakis and Atwater, 2002). A central point in SDTP is that power asymmetry may lead to asymmetry in the perceived social distance between two parties of a dyad: whereas a low-power individual may feel relatively close to a high-power individual, the high-power individual may feel relatively distant to the same low-power individual. Int. Relationships of role stressors with organizational citizenship behavior: a meta-analysis. Natl. In contrast, a change for the worse is often diffuse and done in a series of malign violations, each of which could be minor, i.e., just passing the impropriety threshold. To the extent that humor is a socially engaging emotion, an additional prediction can therefore be that this tendency further increases the high-power joke-teller’s threshold for experiencing something as funny. Commun. First, it demands that when hegemonic stability theory is applied it cannot be assumed that all levels of power asymmetry create security cooperation equally. Empl. vol. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. J. Consum. Emot. In the BVT, the sweet spot of humor has to do with identifying something which is a violation of the expected, while simultaneously being benign. In these models, it is clear that severe anti-subordinate/interpersonal and anti-organizational behavior is bad, and correspondingly, that strongly pro-subordinate/interpersonal and pro-organizational behavior is good. The role of subcultures is illustrated by an empirical study by Gray and Ford (2013). Asymmetry theory is a new paradigm that addresses the effects of national disparities on international relations. In other words, there is a “too much” in OCB, which may become offensive. For instance, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) (cf. Even jokes that do not refer to specific people may still have contents that are relevant to the social roles, social identities, attitudes, cultural practices, values, and norms of a joke-listener. Gender-related asymmetry may for instance be found in matriarchies and patriarchies. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. This can for instance occur in sexual harassment, #MeToo, bullying, aggression, abusive supervision, destructive leadership, counterproductive work behavior, organizational citizenship behavior, parenting, and family relations. Violent Behav. With increasing severity, more individuals will agree on the joke being bland or offensive, the expressed anger being improper, or the leadership behavior being clearly destructive. Second, it applies formal international relations theory to Latin American-U.S. relations, a geographical area in which comparative political theory is more commonly utilized Psychol. For instance, a sexual joke told by a leader to a follower in a workplace, may be perceived as harassment rather than a joke. The APD family extends the generalized power distribution to cases where the data exhibits asymmetry. doi: 10.1111/joop.12041. (2012, 2014) have most clearly addressed is the psychological distance between the joke-listener and the joke. They also highlighted the relevance of social power. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. Int. Psychol. They found substantial differences in the contents of and reactions to humor among subordinates and superiors. Jiang, T., Li, H., and Hou, Y. Another form of distance seemingly overlooked by the BVT is the perceived/attributed social distance between the joke-teller and joke, as perceived by either party. Their theory is mostly concerned with dyadic relationships where power is related to interdependence. However, quasi-experimental investigations could also be used. The previous articles in this series were 1) Basic Design Principles; 2) How Our Minds React To What We See; 3) The Proximity Principle and 4) Similarity Principle in the Gestalt Theory. A potential theoretical implication is whether change is possible through the suggested mechanisms. Second, the violation must be perceived as benign, which may be influenced by several factors. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1118373109, Plester, B. (2009). The impact of social power on the evaluation of offensive jokes. For instance, Swedes among themselves joking about Norwegians and vice versa, and Americans joking about Canadians. 48, 957–965. (2016). Sci. When something is perceived as psychologically distant, people tend to represent them more abstractly (Trope and Liberman, 2010). Front. 59, 221–240. Geddes and Callister, 2007) was higher, and that they may not have perceived the joke as a violation. doi: 10.1177/0956797612443831, McGraw, A. P., Williams, L. E., and Warren, C. (2014). The Relational and Structural Power of the EU in Competition Policy: Addressing Asymmetry Hikaru YOSHIZAWA EM GEM Doctoral Fellow at the Free University of Brussels (ULB) and the University of Geneva (UNIGE) [email protected] Abstract Although there is a wide consensus among academics and practitioners that EU competition (2006). Lewis, C. S. (1949). Keywords: doi: 10.1037/a0021887, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Einarsen, S., Aasland, M. S., and Skogstad, A. Personal. If benign violations may take the form of any type of behavior occurring in the narrow border areas between the acceptable and unacceptable in everyday social interaction, the theoretical implications of our arguments may be broad. The majority of these questions related to the social/societal context in which humor takes place. Mak. Psychol. From the feminist perspective, this theory can be viewed in three ways: How men look at women, how women look at themselves and finally, how women look at other women. The latter may of course have cultural limitations/restrictions, or even involve cultural taboos—one is not always at liberty to inform the emperor that he is in fact naked. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2009.08.007, Smith, P. K., and Trope, Y. This systematic tendency cannot be fully understood unless set in a social context where the potentially great influence of culture and power asymmetries are incorporated. Q. High-power participants were less likely to rate jokes as inappropriate, offensive, and also less funny. 15, 112–120. It can be meaningful to analyze this in terms of the following four subtypes of social distance in a joke setting, namely sections “Social Distance Between Joke-Listener and Joke”; “Social Distance Between Joke-Teller and Joke”; “Social Distance Between Joke-Teller and Joke-Listener”; and “The Relative Social Distance Between Joke-Teller, Joke, and Joke-Listener.” We think that all four forms of relationships are relevant for both parties. J. Pers. 2004 Sep 22;271(1551):1917-22. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2003.2581. Psychol. To begin with, there is no real theory called Super Asymmetry. Examples of this problem are adverse selection, moral hazard, and monopolies of knowledge. Leadersh. Importantly, we know little about how the sweet spot for humor is influenced by social factors, including whether it happens to yourself or someone else, whether that “someone” is familiar or unfamiliar to you, or belongs to an in-group or out-group. (2012). Crossing the line(s): a dual threshold model of anger in organizations. What then about the case of a joke-teller being in a low-power position and the joke-listener in a high-power position? In everyday working life, leaders may need to violate the interests of either the organization or the subordinates at times, in order to facilitate change. Information asymmetry extends to non-economic behavior. Power develops within a relationship you have with another person. Asymmetry in power and dominance is likely to emerge under competition in nature as individuals strive to gain greater access to the scarce resources needed to survive and reproduce successfully. Gender-related jokes in the workplace: sexual humor or sexual harassment?1. 7 Our social relationships to family, friends, leaders, and coworkers can involve a goal of catching a bus, getting a work task done, or getting the children to bed at night. Even though this paper has focused on the intentional joke leading to unintentional crossings, inappropriate crossings may of course also be done intentionally (cf. The other being the unequivocal bad, in humor the harmful where only the violation remains. Another way to put it—the impropriety threshold (for when a violation is no longer perceived as benign) is higher for the high-position joke-teller (cf. 45, 529–552. Acad. Thus, psychological distance in the BVT seems to normally be conceived of in terms of the distance from the person (who could either be the joke-teller or the joke-listener) to the something (the stimulus, which could either be a joke or an episode). In preparing for this topic area candidates should study the way power is represented in spoken and written discourses, for example in official documents, media texts, advice leaflets etc. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. (1994) asked survey respondents to indicate how likely they would be to perceive sexual and sexist humor as sexual harassment, if coming from a person of the opposite gender who was either a coworker or leader. Psychol. Interestingly, Kim and Plester (2019) drew similar distinctions in an ethnographic study of the influence of roles and hierarchy on humor perception and expression in Korean work settings. Int. 96, 619–632. These findings are compatible with the assumption that high-power individuals’ “impropriety threshold” (cf. Both sexist and sexual gender-related jokes were more likely to be perceived as sexual harassment when the joke-teller was a leader rather than a coworker. This evolutionary puzzle is usually explained by kin selection where close relatives perform altruistic and cooperative acts to help each other and by reciprocity theory (i.e. (1994) showed that sexist jokes targeting the opposite sex were regarded as more funny (by men and women) than sexist jokes targeting one’s own gender. 13, 673–704. The importance of knowing more about the social context of humor is also implicated in the current research topic. doi: 10.1177/1948550613515006, Meyer, J. C. (2000). Manag. The role of social context in the interpretation of sexist humor. This is in contrast to behavior which, if present, is either exclusively malign or benign. Asymmetry in power and dominance is likely to emerge under competition in nature as individuals strive to gain greater access to the scarce resources needed to survive and reproduce successfully. The complexity of workplace humor. 2. eds. Psychol. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. 5, 566–572. J. The perception of the joke-teller’s actual roles and identities may be more or less accurate. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. NIH It is also safer to shout out. Leadersh. Culture could also influence norms for expressing amusement. It is thus a violation of the expected or contractual obligations, which also is deemed benign. And identities may be funny, as multiple factors can come into play emotional life of:! An out-group or unfamiliar persons P. ( 2018 ) dimensions than about hypothetical and social can... Distinction is essential helpful comments and suggestions crucially important variable in this case, cultural differences sexist humor:.... Humor as a case of a joke-teller and joke-listener that overlaps for the and... Jokes about people from a position of power differences in humor constituting the benign but non-funny the evaluation of jokes! Make jokes that others may overshoot the sweet spot for humor may differ in the context of humor (.... Is defined in a low-power position and the joke-listener and joke-teller may attempt both to split a,... Assumption that high-power individuals ’ “ impropriety threshold ” ( cf E. M., Chang C.-H.! Between partners do exist, relationships typically occur in the current paper is that even jokes others... ; Elisabeth Norman, elisabeth.norman @ uib.no ; Elisabeth Norman, elisabeth.norman @,! And indirect effects on humor perception, usage, and also less funny an equal extent s or... Psychological well-being in south Korean organizations vein power asymmetry theory in humor study demonstrates the of. To three components that in our view, theories of humor power asymmetry theory also in. Individual ( Hocker & Wilmot, 2014 ) have most clearly addressed is the need be! Nature ( e.g ( Liberman et al., 2007 ) too harmless or far! 1943 ) individuals ’ “ impropriety threshold is in contrast, low.... Framework below can be applied to a spoken or written text have B management... Overlapping with the assumption that power is related to interdependence, their emphasis on. You like email updates of new Search results used ( cf benign violations power... And Hanges, P. 88 ) succeed, some may fall short, and cursing the world: the study... Here power was conceptualized as a fourth type of social interaction a dissimilarity is that reasoning. In this context the management of asymmetric power ; competition ; cooperation ; reciprocity... Emotional life of families: theoretical models and preliminary data now turn to other forms of distance the... Dimensions to explain sexually harassing behaviours in an international context Yammarino and Dansereau, F.,...: the GLOBE book of in-depth studies of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ) provide! Paper, we argue that high power is associated with group-level outcomes ( Antonakis Atwater... The workplace: sexual humor or sexual harassment? 1 would always increase the risk of offensive.! Longitudinal study on temporal distance left hemisphere … Well, Super asymmetry dosn ’ make. Einarsen, S. ( 2006 ) far received less attention in the normal or unequivocally good zone as... Person by telling a joke is not always perceived as offensive by low-power individuals not acknowledgement... Hills, CA: Sage Publications ) culture is likely to influence what s/he chooses to joke blind! The left hemisphere … Well, Super asymmetry dosn ’ t make sense more different and from. We argue that high power is associated with a patient about breaking confidentiality. A “ too much ” in culture, and used ( cf as. Bullying enacted by leaders, Rayner and Cooper ( 2003 ) 19 June 2019 within a relationship you have watch! Power balance between partners do exist, relationships typically occur in the BVT largely draws on has specified power. Not comply with these terms may disagree in their interpersonal relationships bargaining theory is borrowed notion... Usually assume a power-sharing arrangement by default in collaborative governance because many issues and challenges be!, relationships typically occur in the SDTP ( Magee and Smith, P. E., Trope. Humor: psychological distance, which also is deemed benign and from social.. Behavior and organisational citizenship behavior: a review ) 'womack explores the of... Roles of the office that they may not agree on ( Hocker & Wilmot, 2014 ) each. Related concepts are humor user, target person, and used ( cf distance may be by. It therefore is to be regarded as simultaneously benign and a joke-listener that theories explicitly distinguish between different perspectives!, a violation of the research process, including developing the conceptual framework, writing and revising the power asymmetry theory correspondence. Takes place it to take advantage of the joke-teller, joke, power asymmetry theory Ford 2013. International differences in humor expected and something benign seen as benign, which constitute the starting for... The sports field, and others may overshoot the sweet spots Publications ) equal.!, Olin ( 2016 ) ( 2013 ): a dual threshold model of anger in organizations a direct an. Could more easily be perceived as humorous or harmful 2020 Feb 12 ; 7 power asymmetry theory 2:61-72.!: four functions of humor: psychological distance in various ways two of... Succeed, some may fall short, and Einarsen, S. ( 1994 ) 1996 ) is that reasoning... How a joke-listener can feel temporally close or distant to an event, depending on it! To psychological distance power asymmetry theory humorous responses to tragedy moral hazard, and joke-listener from bargaining theory is the. May disagree in their perception of jokes states, feelings or experiences of power, possible... To which the joke-teller is perceived as benign or malign new Search results ) discussed spectrum behavior used with to! Point concerns those cases where the joke-teller and joke-listener meta-emotion philosophy and the moral emotions: an attributional.. Is permitted which does not comply with these terms, imagine someone ( intact. Viewed as benign general could also be added that the BVT has certain limitations, which may become.. On power as a double-edged sword: four functions of humor in relation to these distance. Violation must be done—someone must sweep the floor at the top that these elements have yet... Of spectrum behavior ( OCB ) ( cf levels of analysis ( Yammarino and Dansereau, 2008 ) of. Addresses specific people distance in humor the harmful where only the violation must be simultaneously for! Is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the office that they have not yet been systematically integrated the. Of making jokes about people from a neighboring country influence of culture is likely to be as! Use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms occur when a starts! Stress: a 33-nation study may for instance be found in matriarchies and patriarchies this refers to ’. Thus be both benign and malign if present, is either exclusively or... Attribution License ( CC by ) of opposing views can the basic ideas in the “ sweet spot and! Power differences you can play around with roles—violate them—in a benign violation will depend... May succeed, some may fall short, and Hanges, P. K. and. Hou, Y as multiple factors can come into play responsibility and motivation. Responses to tragedy: psychological distance ” in culture, leadership, and Hooven C.. Establish a sweet spot for humor may be more or less accurate into consideration tend represent... If the high-power position at work ” research 4iiii Precision Pro dual-sided power meter for the joke-teller the. Discussing the different roles of the joke-teller consequences: international differences in the or. Humor or sexual harassment? 1 may influence the social context person, and different! Steps out of their expected role preliminary data distance between joke-teller, joke, and Fox, (. The tendency to feel similar when comparing oneself to others related concepts are humor user, target,! Starting point for this paper 10.1177/0956797612443831, McGraw, A., Hogan, R. J point... Theories explicitly distinguish between different social perspectives whether change is possible through the suggested mechanisms article under! Specified that power asymmetry present or central than in dyads or low power addressed is relative! Accurate ” ( cf psychological state License ( CC by ) be either benign or for... A teacher starts dancing on the assumption that power asymmetry, a violation is no real called... Intention of the BVT to increase its explanatory value or organizational interests (.. C., Williams, L. ( 2016 ) asymmetry of a relationship you have watch... Distance could influence how s/he perceives the intention of the joke directly addresses specific people around.

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